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| Specialized cells|
In a large multicellular organism there are lots of different types of cells. Each cell performs its specific role. So the different cells are arranged together carrying their unique role. This has been achieved by specialization of the cells. Some specialized cells are given below.
Neuron or nerve cell
AdaptationHave tiny hair like cilia projecting from the surface. The cilia beat by moving to and fro very quickly and bring about the transport of the materials. In wind pipe propel the dust and pathogens trapped in mucus upward so that they may be swallowed or coughed out. In the fallopian tube they bring about the movement of eggs down from the ovary to the uterus.
AdaptationThe cytoplasm is filled with the pigment haemoglobin, which combine with oxygen reversibly to make oxyhaemoglobin and transports it from lungs to the tissues. The cells have no neucleus that provide more room for the presence of haemoglobin. Being flat and enucleate they can be forced through the narrowest blood capillaries. They do not posses nucleus so they don’t divide and do not use oxygen for their metabolic activities. Lymphocyte
AdaptationThey have large nucleus that contains many copies of genes to make a large variety of antibodies, which are specific to their antigens.
AdaptationThe cells do not have cytoplasm, so do not provide hinderance to the f;low of water. They are attached end to end and do not have end plates so they make a capillary tube like structure that helps the water rise in them. The walls are deposited an additiona substance called lignin that provides extra strength and provides support.
Adaptation The cells have long extensions which increase the surface area for absorption of materials. They are live cells that provide energy for the active uptake of materials.
They contain chloroplast
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